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Animal Themes
Birds
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Gulls



Gulls
Reading Level
     edHelper's suggested reading level:   grades 4 to 7
     Flesch-Kincaid grade level:   8.6

Vocabulary
     challenging words:    abrasive, aircrafts, argentatus, atricilla, black-backed, californicus, congregate, dominicanus, eburnea, marinus, minutus, nonetheless, opportune, yellow-tipped, plumage, commonly
     content words:    National Wildlife Strike Database, Federal Aviation Administration, New York, North America, United States, South Africa


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Gulls   

1     Noisy and abrasive, gulls are bullies. They pick on birds of a smaller size so they can devour their victims' eggs and chicks. They circle around people eyeing our food and waiting for a chance to come and snatch any scrap they can get. They make a mess when they gather together near garbage dumps to scavenge for something edible. All told, gulls are aggressive feeders. They dine on anything they can eat. Hence, eggs, young birds, fish, crabs, worms, reptiles, amphibians, and even rubbish are all on their menu. Sometimes their quest for food leads them to fly through airfields. Gulls can damage aircraft and pose threats to the passengers on board.
 
2     Of course, gulls are not the only birds that give pilots and airport officials headaches. Geese, doves, and sparrows also cause problems for aircraft. Nonetheless, by far, gulls are responsible for most incidents.
 
3     There are around fifty different species of gulls. They all have webbed feet and slightly hooked beaks. When they are still juveniles, most wear mottled brown or gray feathers. As they are ready to enter adulthood at about the age of three, their feather colors change to a mixture of white, gray, and black. The ivory gull living near the Arctic is the only gull species that differs. Young ivory gulls have white feathers speckled with black spots around their faces and on their wings. Adult ivory gulls have no traces of black smudges. Their plumage is entirely white, which sets in a sharp contrast from their black legs and yellow-tipped black beaks.

Paragraphs 4 to 5:
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Animal Themes
             Animal Themes


Birds
             Birds


Oceans
             Oceans



Animals
    Amphibians  
 
    Birds  
 
    Deserts  
 
    Fish  
 
    Freshwater  
 
    Grasslands  
 
    Insects  
 
 
    Invertebrates  
 
    Mammals  
 
    Oceans  
 
    Polar Regions  
 
    Rain Forest  
 
    Reptiles  
 


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