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The United States Grows
(1865-1900)

Chief Joseph Surrenders



Chief Joseph Surrenders
Reading Level
     edHelper's suggested reading level:   grades 5 to 7
     Flesch-Kincaid grade level:   6.51

Vocabulary
     challenging words:    homesteaders, traditional, lifestyle, northwestern, camps, bands, hard-working, possibly, plentiful, plots, elderly, victory, temporary, conflict, gatherers, journey
     content words:    Nez Perce Indians, Nez Perce, Chief Joseph


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Chief Joseph Surrenders
By Sharon Fabian
  

1     For generations, the Nez Perce Indians had enjoyed the same way of life. Their lives depended on the land, and they showed their respect for the land and its creatures. They spent their time outdoors, and their lifestyle was in tune with the seasons.
 
2     The Nez Perce were hunters and gatherers. Each season would find them in the right location for hunting wild game or gathering wild plants at that time of year. In the spring, they lived in the valleys where they dug the plentiful root crops that grew there. In the summer, they moved up the mountains. There, living in temporary camps, they would harvest summer plants, and hunt and fish. In the fall, the Nez Perce returned to their traditional villages along the rivers. In winter, they could still fish but also depended on dried fruits and berries.
 
3     With the rivers full of fish and a variety of plentiful root vegetables, they lived a comfortable, but hard-working, life. They lived among members of their extended families in small villages. Their clothing included comfortable moccasins for walking long distances and bison skin robes that kept them warm in the cold northwestern winters. Bison skins covered the wooden poles of their tipis too. Hunters brought home game such as deer, moose, and bear. They feasted on gooseberries, huckleberries, and blackberries in season.

Paragraphs 4 to 8:
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