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Peru - History



Peru - History
Reading Level
     edHelper's suggested reading level:   grades 6 to 8
     Flesch-Kincaid grade level:   9.79

Vocabulary
     challenging words:    ayllu, mitmaq, now-powerless, lucrative, nitrate, self-supporting, exploited, unorganized, regional, largely, internal, ownership, riches, revolt, conquistador, bloody
     content words:    Inca Empire, Andes Mountains, Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, Under Pachacuti, South America, Francisco Pizarro, Spaniards Incan, Venezuelan Sim◊n Bol“var, Argentine Joső, San Mart“n


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Peru - History
By Ekaterina Zhdanova-Redman
  

1     The history of Peru is full of great achievements and awful defeats. From the advanced Inca Empire to its overthrow by Spanish forces, the country of Peru has seen many changes throughout its history. And all of this is in one of the most harsh and inhospitable environments in the world.
 
2     Human history in Peru dates back about 10,000 years when travelers from the north settled in Peru's spectacular Andes Mountains. These ancient Peruvians were farmers and fishermen who lived in simple adobe houses. For the most part, these early Peruvians were unorganized, but some banded together into small, regional groups with individual leaders. One of the oldest groups was the Kingdom of ChavÒn. These groups mastered agriculture, many art forms, and developed road systems, and architecture. Such developments were important to the success of Peru's Inca Empire, which ruled the country and its neighbors for hundreds of years.
 
3     One of these small groups was the Incas of Cusco, which in the 13th century began to grow. The Incas slowly included their neighbors into their fold until the 15th century. It was under the rule of the great Inca emperor, Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, when the Incas grew tremendously. Under Pachacuti and his son, Topa, the Incas came to rule almost a third of all of South America.

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