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Worksheets and No Prep Teaching Resources
Reading Comprehension Worksheets
Transportation
Along Came the Engine (Part 1)

Transportation
Transportation


Along Came the Engine (Part 1)
Print Along Came the Engine (Part 1) Reading Comprehension with Fifth Grade Work

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Print Along Came the Engine (Part 1) Reading Comprehension

Reading Level
     edHelper's suggested reading level:   grades 5 to 7
     Flesch-Kincaid grade level:   9.82

Vocabulary
     challenging words:    condenser, crank-flywheel, crankshaft, external-combustion, internal-combustion, redefine, rotary, atmospheric, mechanism, convert, greek, plunger, original, tremendous, piston, valve
     content words:    Englishmen Thomas Newcomen, John Cawley, James Watt, Industrial Revolution, In Part, Along Came


Along Came the Engine (Part 1)
By Trista L. Pollard
  

1     Horses, buggies, and carriages were the "ride" of choice for hundreds of years. Then along came the engine and modern transportation was born. Engines use different forms of energy to produce mechanical motion in machines. If it wasn't for the invention of the engine, we would not have the types of automobiles, trucks, airplanes, and space shuttles we have today.
 
2     Engines are grouped into two categories: external-combustion and internal-combustion. External-combustion engines burn fuel outside of the engine, and produce hot fluid that powers the engine. Steam engines are part of this category. Let's explore one of the most innovative engines in science history.
 
3     Steam engines use steam to convert heat energy into mechanical energy. This steam is known as the "working fluid" in the engine. The engine uses water which is stored in a boiler. A boiler is a closed vessel or series of tubes that has a heat source and uses that source along with water to produce steam. Once in the boiler, the water is converted to steam. As the water expands, its volume increases (it takes up more space). This increase in volume produces force, and this force moves a piston that is located in a cylinder. Think of a piston as a plunger. It is a cylindrical part that fits tightly and moves within another cylinder. This piston, when the force from the steam is applied, moves back and forth or reciprocates. The steam enters one end of the cylinder and pushes the piston to the other end. The piston is attached to a rod which is connected to a crankshaft. A crankshaft is a lever that is attached to a shaft or rod. As the piston is moved, the crankshaft converts the piston's back-and-forth motion to a rotary or circular motion for driving machinery. Afterwards, steam enters through a valve or opening at the other end of the cylinder and pushes the piston back to its starting position. The steam then leaves through an exhaust valve. Now that the piston is back in its original position, the cycle starts all over again.

Paragraphs 4 to 6:
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