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Animal Themes
Invertebrates
Invertebrates



Invertebrates
Reading Level
     edHelper's suggested reading level:   grades 6 to 8
     Flesch-Kincaid grade level:   7.81

Vocabulary
     challenging words:    vascular, cnidarians, annelid, harpoon-like, myriapods, nematodes, ribbon-like, threadworms, woodlice, covering, unit, highly, trigger, mantle, cylindrical, exoskeletons


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Invertebrates   

1     There are over two million known animal species on Earth. About 98% of them are invertebrates. Invertebrates are animals that don't have backbones. They live in a variety of environments. They live in hot and unbearable deserts. They live in frigid and equally unbearable polar regions. They also come in a wide range of shapes and colors. To better understand invertebrates, scientists group them into eight major types. Here are the categories and a fact or two about each type.
 
2     Arthropods are invertebrates with jointed legs. They have hard outer shells (exoskeletons) and segmented bodies. Arthropods are the largest invertebrate group. About 75% of all animal species are arthropods. Insects (such as butterflies, fleas, and beetles), myriapods (such as centipedes and millipedes), crustaceans (such as crabs, pill woodlice, and lobsters), arachnids (such as spiders, scorpions, and ticks), and horseshoe crabs are all examples of arthropods.
 
3     Sponges are the simplest of all animals. Sponges have no heads and no nerves. Most sponges live in oceans, but some live in freshwater. Their movements are very difficult to detect. They always attach to rocks or the sea floor. For these reasons, sponges were once thought to be aquatic plants! Sponges feed through a filter system. Thousands of pores covering the outside of a sponge pump water into the sponge's body. Collar cells lining the inside of the sponge sort out plankton or other microorganisms from the water. Once food particles are trapped and digested by collar cells, sponges expel the water through an opening at the top of the sponge.

Paragraphs 4 to 9:
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Animal Themes
             Animal Themes


Invertebrates
             Invertebrates



Animals
    Amphibians  
 
    Birds  
 
    Deserts  
 
    Fish  
 
    Freshwater  
 
    Grasslands  
 
    Insects  
 
 
    Invertebrates  
 
    Mammals  
 
    Oceans  
 
    Polar Regions  
 
    Rain Forest  
 
    Reptiles  
 


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