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Landforms
Volcanoes
Volcanoes



Volcanoes
Reading Level
     edHelper's suggested reading level:   grades 4 to 6
     Flesch-Kincaid grade level:   5.05

Vocabulary
     challenging words:    bedrock, composite, unpredictable, relatively, cases, life, lifetime, secondly, explosive, probably, cinder, eruption, dome, death, layer, mantle
     content words:    Pacific Ocean


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Volcanoes
By Kathleen W. Redman
  

1     You've probably had some accidents in your lifetime. Have you ever cut yourself accidentally? A lot of things happen when you cut yourself. First of all, it hurts. Sometimes it hurts a lot. Secondly, many cuts bleed. Your body forms a scab. Sure, they're gross, but scabs keep you from bleeding to death. That whole process makes you a little like a volcano.
 
2     The Earth is made up of many parts. Deep inside the Earth is very hot. It's hot enough to melt rocks. This layer of hot, molten rock is called the mantle. Around the mantle is a relatively thin layer called the crust. Sand, soil, bedrock, mountains, and ocean floors are all part of the crust.
 
3     The crust is always changing. Continents are always moving. Parts of the crust pull apart and push together. All this pushing and pulling creates breaks in the Earth's surface, much like a cut breaks the surface of your body. Like blood coming out of a cut on your arm, melted (molten) rock â called magma â escapes from breaks in the Earth's surface sometimes. Magma is under great pressure. Sometimes the pressure is so great that it shoots melted rock and ashes high into the air. As magma escapes, it cools. When it cools, it hardens. More lava â magma that has come out of the ground â flows on top, and it hardens, too. This can go on and on to create mountains. Sometimes, cooled lava can cover the cut in the Earth's crust and stop more lava from escaping. Sometimes magma can burst through the cooled lava and cause another eruption.

Paragraphs 4 to 5:
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Landforms
             Landforms


Volcanoes
             Volcanoes


Science
             Science


    Careers in Science  
 
    Caring for Earth  
 
    Clouds  
 
    Dinosaurs  
 
    Earth's Land  
 
    Earth  
 
    Earthquakes  
 
    Electricity  
 
    Energy  
 
    Erosion  
 
    Food Pyramid  
 
    Food Webs and Food Chain  
 
    Forces and Motion  
 
    Fossils  
 
    Health and Nutrition  
 
    How Things Work  
 
    Landforms  
 
    Life Science  
 
    Light  
 
    Magnets  
 
    Matter  
 
 
    Moon  
 
    Natural Disasters  
 
    Photosynthesis  
 
    Plant and Animal Cells  
 
    Plants  
 
    Rocks and Minerals  
 
    Science Process Skills  
 
    Scientific Notation  
 
    Seasons  
 
    Simple Machines  
 
    Soil  
 
    Solar System  
 
    Sound  
 
    Space and Stars  
 
    Sun  
 
    Tsunami  
 
    Volcanoes  
 
    Water Cycle  
 
    Water  
 
    Weather  
 


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